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Atlas Of Laboratory » Laboratory Department....اقسام المختبـــــرات......بەشەکانی تاقیگە » LAB Notes Guide to LAB & DIAGNOSTICTESTS » Test Name (A)
Test Name (A)
kakaبەروار: Thursday, 2013-09-05, 0:44 AM |بەشداری # 1
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A-type Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
22–77 pg/mL; SI units: 22–77 ng/L
. Lavender-top tube. Immediately send to lab on ice. Specimen
may need to be fasting; check with lab.
Secreted by atrial myocardium; exerts an antihypertensive
effect by increasing the renal excretion of sodium and water.
Secreted from the atria in response to atrial wall stretch.
Less useful than B-type natriuretic.



Acid-fast Bacillus Stain (AFB).

Negative for acid-fast organisms
. Sputum specimen sent in a sterile collection cup. Gastric
washings/aspirates, urine, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), other body
fluids, or tissue samples may also be tested.
Sputum samples should be induced in the early morning to
obtain the best specimen.
Collect specimens for 3 days.
Tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, atypical mycobacteria,
or other acid-fast bacteria. See Tuberculosis Culture.



Acid Phosphatase (ACP, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, PAP)

2.6 ng/mL or 0.5 IU/L; SI units: 2.2 – 10.5 U/L
. Red-top tube.
■Assess prostate cancer metastasis, treatment effectiveness.
■ Infrequently done; usual test is PSA, prostate-specific antigen.
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)
AM: 80 pg/mL; SI units: 18 pmol/L
PM: 50 pg/mL; SI units: 11 pmol/L
. Green-top tube.
■ Assess signs and symptoms of adrenocortical dysfunction.
■ Sample must be iced and sent to lab immediately.



ACTH Stimulation Test (Cosyntropin Stimulation Test)

7 g/dL over baseline in rapid screening test
40 g/dL over baseline in 1- or 3-day test
. Green-top tube.
Differentiate between pituitary-induced adrenal dysfunction
and adrenal insufficiency.
Test involves obtaining a baseline ACTH level, administering
cosyntropin (a synthetic ACTH-like drug) over a prescribed
period, and drawing repeat ACTH levels.



Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT)

See Partial Thromboplastin time (PTT).


Antithrombin III (AT-III)
21–30 mg/dL; SI units: 210–300 mg/L
. Blue- or red-top tube.
Assess patients with thromboses.
Patients with low levels are resistant to heparin therapy.


Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
10–35 U/L; SI units: 0–0.58 mkat/L
. Red-top tube.
Enzyme found in liver cells.
Used in diagnosis of liver, biliary, and pancreatic disease.


Albumin
Adult: 3.5–5 g/dL; SI units: 35–50 g/L
Child: 3.8–5.4 g/dL; SI units: 38–54 g/L
. Red-top tube.
Main plasma protein; helps maintain osmotic pressure.
Decreased albumin causes fluid shifts and resultant edema.
Levels decrease in renal or hepatic disease, acute infection,
malnutrition, malignancy, diabetes, and many other chronic
and acute conditions.


Albumin Cobalt Binding Test (ACB Test) (Ischemia-modified
Albumin [IMA])

 85 U/mL
. Red-top tube.
A new cardiac marker test. The binding properties of albumin
change when it comes into contact with ischemic heart tissue
(ischemia-modified albumin [IMA]) making it less able to bind
with cobalt. When a cobalt solution is added to the serum,
cobalt binds to the normal albumin but not to IMA. More free,
or unbound, cobalt indicates the presence of abnormal
albumin.
Level rises within a few minutes of the onset of cardiac
ischemia. Allows a greater window of time for therapeutic
intervention as other markers only detect cardiac muscle
necrosis, not ischemia.
Used in conjunction with ECG and troponin levels to evaluate
etiology of chest pain.


Albumin/Globulin Ratio (A/G Ratio)
1

. Calculated from total protein and albumin levels.
■ Total protein – albumin  globulins. Albumin ÷ globulins  A/G
ratio.
■ Serum protein electrophoresis has replaced the A/G ratio.


Aldosterone, Serum
7–30 ng/dL; SI units: 190–832 pmol/L (drawn in upright position)
3–16 ng/dL; SI units: 80–440 pmol/L (drawn in supine position)
. Red-or green-top tube.
■ Aldosterone is a potent mineralocorticoid that regulates sodium,
potassium, and water balance.
■ Used with plasma rennin levels to distinguish between primary or
secondary (more common) hyperthyroidism.


Aldosterone, Urine
2–26 g/24 hr; SI units: 6–72 nmol/24 hr
. 24-hr urine collection.
■ Aldosterone is a potent mineralocorticoid that regulates sodium,
potassium, and water balance.
■ Used to diagnose primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism.


Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)
Adult: 42–136 U/L
Child: 50–230 U/L
. Red-top tube.
■ Enzyme found predominately in the liver, biliary tract, and bone.
■ Useful in assessing liver and bone disease.
■ ALP isoenzymes distinguish between liver and bone disease. ALP1 is
hepatic; ALP2 is from bone.


Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP, a-Fetoprotein

Men, Nonpregnant Females: 16 ng/mL; SI Units: 16 mL
Pregnant Females at 15–18 Weeks’ Gestation: 10–150 ng/mL; SI units:
10–150 mL
. Red-top tube.
■ In men and nonpregnant females as a tumor marker to aid in
diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, testicular tumor, ovarian
cancer. May be elevated in alcoholic cirrhosis.
■ In pregnancy to detect fetal neural tube defect, multiple pregnancy,
fetal distress, fetal death.


Ammonia
Adult: 15–45 g/dL; SI units: 11–35 mol/L
Child: 29–70 g/dL; SI units: 29–70 mol/L
. Green-top tube.
■ Ammonia forms when protein is broken down by bacteria in the
intestinal tract. It is then converted to urea by the liver and excreted
by the kidneys.
■ Elevated in liver failure. Elevations manifest as encephalopathy
(lethargy, confusion, tremors, coma).


Amylase, Serum
Adult: 60–160 Somogyi U/dL; SI units: 30–70 U/L
. Red-top tube.
■ Secreted by the pancreas and elevated in pancreatic disorders.
■ Damaged or obstructed pancreatic cells cause amylase to spill into
lymph ducts and the peritoneum where excess amylase is picked up
by by the blood.


Anion Gap (AG)
8–16 mEq/L
. Calculated from electrolyte values.
■ Anion gap equals the difference between the cations (sodium and
potassium) and the anions (chloride and bicarbonate).
■ (Na  K) – (Cl-  HCO3
-)  AG
■ Elevated AG (17 mEq/L) is associated with metabolic acidosis.
■ Decreased AG (8 mEq/L) is associated with metabolic alkalosis
(see ABG section in this Tab).


Antibodies, Auto
◆ Anticentomere antibody
◆ Anti-DNA antibody
◆ Antiglomerular basement membrane antibody
◆ Antimicrosomal antibody
◆ Antimitochondrial antibody
◆ Antimyocardial antibody
◆ Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)
◆ Antinuclear antibody (ANA)
◆ Antiparietal cell antibody
◆ Antiscleroderma antibody (SCL 70)
◆ Antismooth muscle antibody
◆ Sjögren syndrome antibody (SS-A)
Negative. Reference ranges and measurement units for
individual tests vary as does the amount of detectable antibody
that constitutes a positive result. Results may be reported as the
amount of antibody detected and if the values are considered
negative, positive, or equivocal.
. Red-top tube.
■ Autoantibodies are proteins created by the immune system
that attack the body’s own tissues or organs.
■ Autoantibodies represent a failure by the immune system
to distinguish between foreign proteins and the body’s own
tissues.
■ Elevated autoantibody levels are found in people with
autoimmune disorders such systemic lupus erythematosus
(SLE).
■ Autoimmune disorders may be organ specific as in Graves’
disease, or systemic, as in vasculitis.


Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH); ADH Suppression Test
ADH: 1–5 pg/mL; SI units: 1.5 ng/L
ADH suppression test: 80% of waterload excreted in 5 hr; Urine
osmolality ≥100 mmol/kg; Urine to serum osmolality ratio 100;
Urine specific gravity 1.003.
. Red-top tube, plastic.
■ ADH controls the amount of water resorbed by the kidney.
■ Inadequate ADH secretion results in diabetes insipidus (DI).
■ Excess secretion of ADH related to various cancers (lung,
pancreas, urinary tract, blood) results in syndrome of
inappropriate ADH (SIADH).


Antistreptolysin O/Antistreptococcal O Titer (ASO)
Adult and preschool age child: 100 IU/mL
Child (school age) : 200 IU/mL
. Red-top tube
■ Streptolysin is an enzyme secreted by beta-hemolytic streptococci.
It causes an antibody response that begins to rise 1
week after streptococcal infection and peaks in 2–3 weeks.
■ High serum ASO levels are seen with acute rheumatic fever,
poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, and collagen
diseases.


جیگیرکردن: 4101833.png(7.3 Kb)
 
kakaبەروار: Thursday, 2013-09-05, 0:44 AM |بەشداری # 2
Private
گروپ: Administrators
بەشداری: 15
دیاری: 0
سمعة: 0
بار: Offline



A-type Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
22–77 pg/mL; SI units: 22–77 ng/L
. Lavender-top tube. Immediately send to lab on ice. Specimen
may need to be fasting; check with lab.
Secreted by atrial myocardium; exerts an antihypertensive
effect by increasing the renal excretion of sodium and water.
Secreted from the atria in response to atrial wall stretch.
Less useful than B-type natriuretic.



Acid-fast Bacillus Stain (AFB).

Negative for acid-fast organisms
. Sputum specimen sent in a sterile collection cup. Gastric
washings/aspirates, urine, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), other body
fluids, or tissue samples may also be tested.
Sputum samples should be induced in the early morning to
obtain the best specimen.
Collect specimens for 3 days.
Tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, atypical mycobacteria,
or other acid-fast bacteria. See Tuberculosis Culture.



Acid Phosphatase (ACP, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, PAP)

2.6 ng/mL or 0.5 IU/L; SI units: 2.2 – 10.5 U/L
. Red-top tube.
■Assess prostate cancer metastasis, treatment effectiveness.
■ Infrequently done; usual test is PSA, prostate-specific antigen.
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)
AM: 80 pg/mL; SI units: 18 pmol/L
PM: 50 pg/mL; SI units: 11 pmol/L
. Green-top tube.
■ Assess signs and symptoms of adrenocortical dysfunction.
■ Sample must be iced and sent to lab immediately.



ACTH Stimulation Test (Cosyntropin Stimulation Test)

7 g/dL over baseline in rapid screening test
40 g/dL over baseline in 1- or 3-day test
. Green-top tube.
Differentiate between pituitary-induced adrenal dysfunction
and adrenal insufficiency.
Test involves obtaining a baseline ACTH level, administering
cosyntropin (a synthetic ACTH-like drug) over a prescribed
period, and drawing repeat ACTH levels.



Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT)

See Partial Thromboplastin time (PTT).


Antithrombin III (AT-III)
21–30 mg/dL; SI units: 210–300 mg/L
. Blue- or red-top tube.
Assess patients with thromboses.
Patients with low levels are resistant to heparin therapy.


Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
10–35 U/L; SI units: 0–0.58 mkat/L
. Red-top tube.
Enzyme found in liver cells.
Used in diagnosis of liver, biliary, and pancreatic disease.


Albumin
Adult: 3.5–5 g/dL; SI units: 35–50 g/L
Child: 3.8–5.4 g/dL; SI units: 38–54 g/L
. Red-top tube.
Main plasma protein; helps maintain osmotic pressure.
Decreased albumin causes fluid shifts and resultant edema.
Levels decrease in renal or hepatic disease, acute infection,
malnutrition, malignancy, diabetes, and many other chronic
and acute conditions.


Albumin Cobalt Binding Test (ACB Test) (Ischemia-modified
Albumin [IMA])

 85 U/mL
. Red-top tube.
A new cardiac marker test. The binding properties of albumin
change when it comes into contact with ischemic heart tissue
(ischemia-modified albumin [IMA]) making it less able to bind
with cobalt. When a cobalt solution is added to the serum,
cobalt binds to the normal albumin but not to IMA. More free,
or unbound, cobalt indicates the presence of abnormal
albumin.
Level rises within a few minutes of the onset of cardiac
ischemia. Allows a greater window of time for therapeutic
intervention as other markers only detect cardiac muscle
necrosis, not ischemia.
Used in conjunction with ECG and troponin levels to evaluate
etiology of chest pain.


Albumin/Globulin Ratio (A/G Ratio)
1

. Calculated from total protein and albumin levels.
■ Total protein – albumin  globulins. Albumin ÷ globulins  A/G
ratio.
■ Serum protein electrophoresis has replaced the A/G ratio.


Aldosterone, Serum
7–30 ng/dL; SI units: 190–832 pmol/L (drawn in upright position)
3–16 ng/dL; SI units: 80–440 pmol/L (drawn in supine position)
. Red-or green-top tube.
■ Aldosterone is a potent mineralocorticoid that regulates sodium,
potassium, and water balance.
■ Used with plasma rennin levels to distinguish between primary or
secondary (more common) hyperthyroidism.


Aldosterone, Urine
2–26 g/24 hr; SI units: 6–72 nmol/24 hr
. 24-hr urine collection.
■ Aldosterone is a potent mineralocorticoid that regulates sodium,
potassium, and water balance.
■ Used to diagnose primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism.


Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)
Adult: 42–136 U/L
Child: 50–230 U/L
. Red-top tube.
■ Enzyme found predominately in the liver, biliary tract, and bone.
■ Useful in assessing liver and bone disease.
■ ALP isoenzymes distinguish between liver and bone disease. ALP1 is
hepatic; ALP2 is from bone.


Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP, a-Fetoprotein

Men, Nonpregnant Females: 16 ng/mL; SI Units: 16 mL
Pregnant Females at 15–18 Weeks’ Gestation: 10–150 ng/mL; SI units:
10–150 mL
. Red-top tube.
■ In men and nonpregnant females as a tumor marker to aid in
diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, testicular tumor, ovarian
cancer. May be elevated in alcoholic cirrhosis.
■ In pregnancy to detect fetal neural tube defect, multiple pregnancy,
fetal distress, fetal death.


Ammonia
Adult: 15–45 g/dL; SI units: 11–35 mol/L
Child: 29–70 g/dL; SI units: 29–70 mol/L
. Green-top tube.
■ Ammonia forms when protein is broken down by bacteria in the
intestinal tract. It is then converted to urea by the liver and excreted
by the kidneys.
■ Elevated in liver failure. Elevations manifest as encephalopathy
(lethargy, confusion, tremors, coma).


Amylase, Serum
Adult: 60–160 Somogyi U/dL; SI units: 30–70 U/L
. Red-top tube.
■ Secreted by the pancreas and elevated in pancreatic disorders.
■ Damaged or obstructed pancreatic cells cause amylase to spill into
lymph ducts and the peritoneum where excess amylase is picked up
by by the blood.


Anion Gap (AG)
8–16 mEq/L
. Calculated from electrolyte values.
■ Anion gap equals the difference between the cations (sodium and
potassium) and the anions (chloride and bicarbonate).
■ (Na  K) – (Cl-  HCO3
-)  AG
■ Elevated AG (17 mEq/L) is associated with metabolic acidosis.
■ Decreased AG (8 mEq/L) is associated with metabolic alkalosis
(see ABG section in this Tab).


Antibodies, Auto
◆ Anticentomere antibody
◆ Anti-DNA antibody
◆ Antiglomerular basement membrane antibody
◆ Antimicrosomal antibody
◆ Antimitochondrial antibody
◆ Antimyocardial antibody
◆ Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)
◆ Antinuclear antibody (ANA)
◆ Antiparietal cell antibody
◆ Antiscleroderma antibody (SCL 70)
◆ Antismooth muscle antibody
◆ Sjögren syndrome antibody (SS-A)
Negative. Reference ranges and measurement units for
individual tests vary as does the amount of detectable antibody
that constitutes a positive result. Results may be reported as the
amount of antibody detected and if the values are considered
negative, positive, or equivocal.
. Red-top tube.
■ Autoantibodies are proteins created by the immune system
that attack the body’s own tissues or organs.
■ Autoantibodies represent a failure by the immune system
to distinguish between foreign proteins and the body’s own
tissues.
■ Elevated autoantibody levels are found in people with
autoimmune disorders such systemic lupus erythematosus
(SLE).
■ Autoimmune disorders may be organ specific as in Graves’
disease, or systemic, as in vasculitis.


Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH); ADH Suppression Test
ADH: 1–5 pg/mL; SI units: 1.5 ng/L
ADH suppression test: 80% of waterload excreted in 5 hr; Urine
osmolality ≥100 mmol/kg; Urine to serum osmolality ratio 100;
Urine specific gravity 1.003.
. Red-top tube, plastic.
■ ADH controls the amount of water resorbed by the kidney.
■ Inadequate ADH secretion results in diabetes insipidus (DI).
■ Excess secretion of ADH related to various cancers (lung,
pancreas, urinary tract, blood) results in syndrome of
inappropriate ADH (SIADH).


Antistreptolysin O/Antistreptococcal O Titer (ASO)
Adult and preschool age child: 100 IU/mL
Child (school age) : 200 IU/mL
. Red-top tube
■ Streptolysin is an enzyme secreted by beta-hemolytic streptococci.
It causes an antibody response that begins to rise 1
week after streptococcal infection and peaks in 2–3 weeks.
■ High serum ASO levels are seen with acute rheumatic fever,
poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, and collagen
diseases.


جیگیرکردن: 4101833.png(7.3 Kb)
 
Atlas Of Laboratory » Laboratory Department....اقسام المختبـــــرات......بەشەکانی تاقیگە » LAB Notes Guide to LAB & DIAGNOSTICTESTS » Test Name (A)
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